The combination of all the organisms
in a given area and the abiotic elements which affect them.
An ecosystem is an open system because it can exchange energy or materials with other ecosystems.
Earth is a closed system with respect to nutrients and chemicals, but open with respect to energy.
* one way flow of energy - Fig 1.7 - Fig 54.1
sunlight -> producers -> consumers
* cycling of nutrients
Gross Primary Production (GPP)
Net Primary Production (NPP) - Fig 54.4
Limiting factor - Fig
Secondary production - Fig 54.10
Energy Partitioning within a Link of the Food Chain
Trophic Efficiency and Ecological Pyramids
A general model of nutrient cycling - Fig 54.15
Water Cycle - Fig 54.16
Carbon Cycle - Fig
Nitrogen Cycle - Fig 54.18
Phosphorous Cycle - Fig 54.19
A review of nutrient cycling - Fig 54.20